Friedrich Schleiermacher, the PCA, and Side B Christianity

The struggle in the PCA over confessional identity is a microcosm of the macrocosm. The current discussions reveal that the PCA is on track to be another denominational domino to topple along with the mainline churches who have embraced theological liberalism. The Social Justice movement, along human sexuality redefinition, is escalating things quickly.

Often, it’s hard to appreciate in the moment exactly what is happening, especially when denominational leaders who are advancing the trajectory mock the “slippery slope” narrative as crying wolf. But Scott Clark is correct in saying we should use the right categories of analysis. Clark writes,

One way to avoid the same outcome in the PCA is to use the right categories of analysis: confessional v. non-confessional rather than “liberal v. conservative.” It is possible to be generally theologically conservative but non-confessional. Of course theological liberalism is also non-confessional but it is easy to assume that the theological “conservatives” in the PCA are confessional, even when they are not.

This is really helpful.

It’s the non-confessional category that we need to think about. What does that mean? I was struck by something Greg Johnson said in an interview by Preston Sprinkle. Consider Johnson’s words,

In the midst of suffering God would meet me very personally…I could count on one hand the number of times I actually felt loved by God, I knew I was loved by God cognitively but I never felt it. I can’t say that anymore…I know my father in heaven loves me, anyone who wants to mess with me is going to have a talk with him eventually.

Here’s the question: What if you are advancing something theologically that is not true, does one’s feeling and “meeting with God very personally” triumph over confessional truth? To be clear, Johnson’s emphasis on religious feeling as triumphant is what non-confessional language sounds like. It’s all about feeling, reaching a status of knowing God consciously and personally that becomes the basis of how reality is defined. And don’t you dare mess with someone who has achieved this personal feeling of acceptance with God, lest God himself come after you.

This approach has huge implications for our present moment. What place do the objective truths of our theological tradition have in this scenario? The dogmas of the church and the confessional basis for how a denomination lives together in harmony becomes subservient to the subjective consciousness of one’s feeling. One can know God immediately apart from the truth of what has been confessionally embraced. One can know that God loves them, even when their practices stand over and against the objective truth of their own theological tradition.

This is why ideas like side-B Christianity find a way, that one be gay and still be a Christian. I was struck in the interview mentioned above, that the host scoffed at those who would bring charges against a man who was not practicing homosexuality, without ever really addressing the most important theological issue of whether Greg Johnson is repenting of these specific sinful desires that originate from the heart.

We have to appreciate that none of this is new. American Christians generally assume that they are carrying forward classic Protestantism; something vaguely connected to the Reformation that broke us free from Rome’s tyranny. But we forget that other movements happened along the way that have created our present moment.

The Father of Modern Theology

Johnson’s language is taken from the play book of the father of modern theology, Friedrich Schleiermacher (1768-1834). On August 6, 1791 Schleiermacher wrote to his father explaining his conversion. He wrote, “Here my heart is properly nurtured and need not wither under the weeds of cold erudition and my religious feelings do not die under theological speculation.

First, a bit of history. Friedrich Schleiermacher was born on 1768 in Breslau, Lower Silesia. At age 10, he studied under the Moravian Brethren and was said to have gone through a “deeply emotional renewal of the Christian faith.” Although raised by a Reformed military chaplain, Schleiermacherexpressed skepticism over some of the essential doctrines of the Christian faith, and was said to have become a Morovian both outwardly and inwardly. In 1794, after graduating from Halle, and sustaining two theological examinations, he was called to a Reformed pulpit in Berlin.

Schleiermacher found reality in feeling, immediate experience, and spiritual illumination. He believed that many of his Romantic friends had abandoned religion because the rationalists had wrongly reduced the essence of knowledge to propositions and dogmas. As Roger Olson observes, Schleiermacher believed that religious experience is primary; theology is secondary and must constantly be reformed in relation to the changing aspects of Christian communities.

For Schleiermacher, every doctrinal form is bound to a particular time and no claim can be made for its permanent validity. It is the task of theology in every present age, by critical reflection, to express anew the implications of the living religious consciousness.

Any confessional approach to Christianity should not hinder any man from developing “a religion suitable to his own nature and his own religious sense.” Creeds and confessions, dogmas, propositional statements, belong to the religious experience of the community at the time of their origination. God’s revelation doesn’t just take a back-seat to feeling, but is, in fact, entirely derived from what is experienced when one achieves what Schleiermacher calls the feeling of absolute dependence.

Schleiermacher went as far as to say, taking these ideas to their logical conclusion, that the Bible is not the inspired and infallible word of God, it is simply the religious experience of the early church. Schleiermacher wrote, “In our exposition, all doctrines properly so called must be extracted from the Christian religious self-consciousness, the inward experience of Christian people.” Religion then is the “feeling of absolute dependence.”

Schleiermacher believed, therefore, that feeling is the immediate consciousness of life, and results from an interaction between the individual and the immediate environment. God is given to us in feeling in an original way. This is known as the “God-consciousness.” Religious sentiment enables the revelation of God in a person. This is the greatest state of blessedness and every doctrine must be a correlate to the God-consciousness of the Christian community.

The function of the church was to be a “self-renewing circulation of the religious self-consciousness” by which God is in a person strengthening their God-consciousness.

This is what Scott Clark is saying when he encourages the right categories of analysis. One can be conservative, but the question of being confessional is the issue. If religious feeling makes confessional truth subservient to the changing aspect of our communities, then it should be no real surprise that what we are seeing happen in the “current” sexual revolution is redefining of what it means to be confessional based on the religious experience of the moment. This is what the PCA is up against and, well, all of us together as believers in Christ.

Until we appreciate that there is only one deposit of truth given to the church, and that our sinful desires do not define our reality, and must be repented of according to an unchanging divine standard, we will continue to watch the denominational dominoes fall over. Contending for this faith is hard business, but we have to give ourselves to this noble task. If there is anything that church history proves it is that people are never quite unhappy with an unchanging God and his revelation to us that was once for all delivered to the saints. Religious feelings are not sovereign when it comes to what is true.


  1. These issues are complex and need to be handled with care and attention to scripture. We also need to be fair to the positions of those with whom we disagree. The opening example which stands as a sign post for readers to see how one side of this debate are choosing “feelings” over confessional thinking is not a fair representation of the context or heart of Johnson’s testimony. The quote about feeling loved by God was not given as the rationale for his position. It was in the context of the interviewer asking him how the last couple years have been! Here was a minister of the gospel trying to be honest about his personal walk with the Lord in times of difficulty and testifying to the faithfulness of God to meet him in such times and show His love to him. I cannot understand how you can take that story and say “ah ha! Gotcha! You care about feeling the love of God. That means you think your feelings trump scripture!” That is patently absurd. The rest of the critique is built on this foundational misrepresentation of Johnson’s behavior and views.

  2. I don’t really have any say in any of this, as I am not PCA. But as a Christian layman, just a regular guy, not in any kind of leadership so far away from the lofty positions held Christian leaders, I can tell you what I and so many other regular folks see when we look at the PCA. From down here at ground level, looking up at those lofty heights, we see about half of you folks being pro-homosexual (after all, you did approve and affirm REVOICE and all that unbiblical nonsense), and the other half of you folks being pro-Bible. We don’t see any reconciliation even possible as long as the pro-homosexual folks keep on being pro-homosexual. And this is to say nothing of those who are pro-CRT/Social Justice/Intersectionality — that a whole ‘nother can of necrotic worms. About the only thing we see is an inevitable split in the PCA with the pro-homosexual group continuing their field trip into rainbow land, and the rest holding fast to God. Just my observations for what they’re worth.

  3. Rev. Gordon,
    I don’t know how the URC works in the trenches (except I know I can’t have communion if I visit) any more than I know how Mrs. Butterfield’s RPCNA. In the PCA, we have regional groups of confessional churches and her ministers who exchange vows with one another to serve together and pursue God’s Kingdom in that place. Those groups of churches are committed to one another in that ‘presbytery.’ Rev. Johnson’s presbytery is Missouri. That group had charges filed against him and everything was investigated fully. He was found not guilty. A PCA presbytery ruled, and it was the correct decision despite your feelings on the matter. The PCA holds to a “good faith” subscription on purpose. Those who would say that makes us unconfessional are in the minority and would likely be more at ease in a more rigid and inflexible denomination.

  4. Rev. Gordon,
    Yes. That’s exactly what you did. “Nuh uh” isn’t much of a response, but okie doke. And, yes, it’s clear the GRN is out to discredit a minister in good standing, with the help of TAR. It is also true that many of Greg’s faithful brothers are 100% supportive of him in gospel ministry. So much so that we went on record 2 years ago, have an open letter of our own, and now have many moderators also holding the line for gospel fidelity and beautiful orthodoxy. I realize that makes you nervous or frustrated or fearful for my denomination, but I want you to know, as much as we appreciate your URC concern, we’ll be fine moving forward.
    Signing off from dreamland,

  5. Rev.Gordon,
    As a member of the PCA, within the Illiana Presbytery, I think that your assessment and those of Dr.Clark’s are “spot on”. Thank you for your post.

  6. I could not disagree more heartily with the conclusion reached from such false assumptions. You’ve made forced correlations and jumped to unfounded conclusions. In doing so you’ve impugned an entire presbytery and challenged the work of a faithful committee. The PCA is not perfect by any stretch, but it is not “going liberal” anytime soon. If anything, we need to address our Christian nationalism and constantly rancorous chicken littles.

    • In doing so you’ve impugned an entire presbytery and challenged the work of a faithful committee. The PCA is not perfect by any stretch, but it is not “going liberal” anytime soon.

      About half of us in the PCA are tired of this infuriating gaslighting. We’ve seen the tweets and open letters from you National Partnership guys as well as your signed rebuke of Rev. Warhurst in this matter. The matter is not settled at all since several other presbyteries have put forth overtures to the GA about this. Your lying and bad-faith argumentation need to be called-out.

      Side ‘B’ is not remotely Biblical or confessional. Neither seem to matter to you.

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