In this eighth session, Dr. Godfrey evaluates the challenges to Christendom that came through the ideas of G.W.F. Hegel and Karl Marx. Godfrey discusses Hegel’s thesis, antithesis, and synthesis and how Marx took these categories and applied them to economics, seeking to do away with all oppressors. The one big problem? In seeking to explain the world differently than Christianity, they were unable to account for human sinfulness. As Heinrich Heine (1797-1856), a German Poet, prophetically wrote that he feared a people would come who, “with ax and sword will mercilessly tear down the soil of our European life in order to destroy the past to its very roots.” This is a very important session for understanding how these ideas have influenced us today.